Birth injuries are any types of injuries that a baby sustains due to complications during the labor and delivery process. The injuries can range from very mild (e.g., head and facial bruising, small cuts) to severe (e.g., nerve damage, brain damage). Sometimes the injuries are a natural outcome of the birth. For example, a baby may have some bruising simply from passing through the birth canal. Other times, however, birth injuries are a result of mistakes made by medical professionals. This includes situations like a failure of a doctor to respond to fetal distress or a failure to order or perform an emergency C-section.